Veronica T. Thronson, Carole Angel, Soraya Fata, Rocio Molina, Benish Anver, Kalli Wells and Leslye E. Orloff, Winning Custody Cases for Immigrant Survivors: The Clash of Laws, Cultures, Custody and Parental Rights. 9 Fam. & Intimate Partner Violence Q. 2-3, 1-169 (2017) This article discusses a wide range of topics that arise in custody cases […]
Immigration Status in Family Court What should I do if the opposing party raises my client’s undocumented status in family law court as a way to argue jurisdiction? Standing, or the right to bring a case in court as an interested party, in family law court is not determined on the basis of immigration status. […]
Amicus Brief in an enforcement of an affidavit of support case brought on behalf of an immigrant spouse who was a domestic violence victim. The brief argues the sponsored spouses must be permitted to enforce the I-864 affidavit of support in family court divorce proceedings as a contract and that common law and state spousal support laws may impose duties to mitigate do not apply to affidavit of support enforcement actions. The brief discusses the history and purpose of the affidavit of support and the particular importance of allowing its enforcement in divorce cases and not requiring a separate civil contract enforcement case in cases of battered immigrant spouses. In discussing the legislative history of the statute the brief discusses its relationship to the Violence Against Women Act and the reason VAWA self-petitioners were exempted from deeming, affidavits of support and given access to public benefits as part of the same 1996 law that created the I-864 Affidavit of support.
Decision of the California Court of Appeals confirming that Affidavits of Support are enforceable by the sponsored spouse, in this case an abused spouse, in family court as part of a divorce proceeding. enforcement of the affidavit of support is independent of spousal support laws. Courts cannot impose a duty to mitigate that may apply in spousal support cases to enforcement requested by a sponsored spouse in a divorce proceeding. Enforcement of an affidavit of support is enforcement of the contract between the sponsor and the U.S. government by the beneficiary of that contract envisioned by the federal statute and regulations governing affidavits of support. This case provides an summary or prior affidavit of support decisions in other jurisdictions and an analysis that addresses the few decisions that based on the facts and pleadings in those specific cases could be construed to reach a different conclusion but are distinguished by this court.
In this issue:
– Violence Against Women Act’s Special Immigration VAWA Confidentiality Protections for Immigrant Survivors
– Types of Immigrants Eligible for VAWA Confidentiality Disclosure Limitations
– Who Can Benefit from VAWA Confidentiality Protection?
– VAWA Confidentiality Protections for Eligible Immigrants
– Examples of Violations
– Exceptions to VAWA Confidentiality
– Penalties for Violating VAWA Confidentiality
– Reporting Violations to DHS
– How to Prepare to Address VAWA Confidentiality in State Courts
In this issue:
– Legal Rights of Immigrant Parents in State Court Custody Proceedings
– Common Misconceptions About Immigration Status and Child Custody
– Practice Tips on Addressing Immigration Status in Custody Cases
– Additional Resources on Immigration and Family Law
Language Access DOJ Letter to State Courts on Language Access Bench Card: Court Interpretation in Protection Order Hearings Immigration allegations in Custody Cases Common Immigration Issues that Arise in Custody Cases Involving Immigrant Crime Victims and Their Children Custody of Children in Mixed Status Families: Preventing the Misunderstanding and Misuse of Immigration Status in State-Court […]
Chapter of a publication on issues that arise in family court cases involving immigrant crime victims pending publication. This chapter discusses VAWA confidentiality protections and their impact in state court proceedings. While the emphasis of the article is on family court cases, the discussion is also useful in criminal court cases. This article discusses the Hawke, Demaj and Koch cases on VAWA confidentiality.
NIWAP has developed a number of checklists that assist attorneys and advocates working with immigrant survivors to prepare for a variety of legal cases on behalf of immigrant survivors. Some of the following checklists are geared toward preparing to accompany a victim who will be applying for state or federal public benefits that the victim […]
This Amicus brief was submitted to the Board of Immigration Appeals and addresses an important issue presented by Amicus Invitation No. I 6-06-09, focusing on how the term “minor” should be defined and understood by the Board in child asylum cases in light of the substantial body of recent research concerning the neurobiological, cognitive, and psychological development of children and adolescents. This brief will focus on the significant and deleterious effect trauma and
maltreatment have on that development, including the impact of impaired development on the readiness of child migrants to file asylum applications.
Advocating for Housing PowerPoint (PDF)
Creative Remedies PowerPoint (PDF)
Advanced Custody PowerPoint (PDF)
For purposes of Special Immigrant Juvenile Status Cases when immigrant children are seeking state court findings for SIJS predicate orders, states are to apply state court definitions of abuse and neglect to the facts of the child’s case without regard to the location where the abuse or neglect occurred in the U.S. or abroad. The […]
Parental Interest Directive materials from the Center on Immigration and Child Welfare’s site contains links to the following resources: Applying the ICE Parental interest Directive to Child Welfare Cases Facilitating Parental interests in the Course of Civil Immigration Enforcement Activities FAQs on the Parental Interests Directive Parental Interests Directive Fact Sheet How to Get a […]
This fact sheet provides courts and overview of how children are affected by experiencing trauma including the trauma of domestic violence being perpetrated at home. Contains social and brain science research data.
Building a Community of Practice: Creating a Culture of Social Equity for Immigrant Women and Children
An article “Immigration Concerns for Family Law Practitioners.” Written by Veronica T. Thronson. Published in the Michigan Family Law Journal, a publication of the State Bar of Michigan Family Law Section. Volume 46 Number 4 April 2016.
Dynamics of DV& SA learning interests from COP participants From the Community of Practice applications, here are the things participants listed as learning topics relating to the dynamics of DV & SA for Immigrant Survivors.
COP Presentation: A Community of Practice This is the presentation from the very first COP meeting. It provides a basic overview of the COP process and discussion of priorities.
These slides were presented by Leslye Orloff in a keynote address entitled “Helping Sexual Assault and Human Trafficking Victims: Holding their Abusers Accountable” at Youngstown State University on March 31, 2016. For additional materials relevant to this training, please visit www.niwap.org/go/Ohio2016.
These slides were presented in Leslye Orloff’s workshop “Expanding Legal Representation of Immigrant Survivors in Immigration and Family Law” at Community Legal Aid’s Akron, OH office on March 30, 2016. For additional materials relevant to this training, please visit www.niwap.org/go/Ohio2016.
These slides were presented by Mary Ann Dutton, Rocio Molina, and Commissioner Loretta Young at the Community of Responders: A Holistic Approach to Working with Immigrant Survivors of Abuse in New Orleans, LA on July 30, 2015.
These slides were presented by Commissioner Loretta Young, Judge Mary Weir, and Leslye E. Orloff at the Community of Responders: A Holistic Approach to Working with Immigrant Survivors of Abuse in New Orleans, LA on July 29, 2015.
These slides were presented by Mercedes V. Lorduy, Mary Ann Dutton, and Aparna Bhattacharyya at the Community of Responders: A Holistic Approach to Working with Immigrant Survivors of Abuse in New Orleans, LA on July 29, 2015.
These slides were presented by Bill Tamayo, Mary Ann Dutton and Shelli Sonnenberg at the Community of Responders: A Holistic Approach to Working with Immigrant Survivors of Abuse in New Orleans, LA on July 29, 2015.
A handout of the material distributed in the judge’s training in Minnesota. Interest in this training arose as a result of our work with judges in Minnesota on U visa certification by judges. Leslye Orloff and Judge Lora Livingston presented at this training in December 2015. NIWAP worked with the Judicial Education Program Manager to identify which areas needed to be addressed and issues the judges were most interested in learning more about.
Updated November 30, 2015, the Department of Homeland Security published an updated resource guide to clarify and further explain the role of certifying agencies in the U and T visa application process. This guide addresses concerns, answers common questions, and provides accurate information on signing I-918B and I-914B forms for federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, and other government agencies qualified to sign U visa certifications such as the EEOC, federal and state labor departments, adult and child protective services, and any other eligible agencies that have criminal, civil, or administrative investigative or prosecutorial authority. The guide provides information on what U and T visas are, discusses U visa qualifying criminal activities and severe forms of trafficking in persons, explains the standard for “helpfulness” and “reasonable request for assistance”, and has many more important tips and information about the U and T visa.
Breaking Barriers is a comprehensive manual that provides information that will be useful to advocates, attorneys, justice, and social services professionals working with and assisting immigrant survivors of domestic and family violence. This Manual provides a detailed overview explanation of immigrant survivors’ legal rights under immigration, family, public benefits, and criminal laws and their rights to […]
This is a comprehensive manual that provides information that will be useful to advocates, attorneys, justice, and social services professionals working with and assisting immigrant survivors of sexual assault. This manual will help advocates and professionals expand their knowledge and capacity to aid immigrant victims of sexual assault in accessing justice under federal and state civil, […]
The purpose of this bench card is to inform courts about DHS protections available to all immigrants so that the court can assess cases with an understanding of real policies and see official memoranda describing the intended protections available.
Example of Affidavit in Support of Fee Waiver to USCIS for immigrant victims applying for VAWA self-petition, U visa waiver (I-192), Employment Authorization Document (I-765) and Adjustment of Status (I-485).
NIWAP SA Conference Providence RI Scenario: Justice is More Than Jail
Scenarios of immigrant sexual assault survivors.
A powerpoint presentation from the June 26-27, 2013 training in Providence, Rhode Island from the plenary.
A powerpoint presentation from the June 22, 2012 training in Richmond, Virginia. Sponsored by the Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Alliance.
Unanimous decision from the Nebraska Supreme Court overturning the termination of parental rights of an immigrant mother who was detained and deported and who was not provided language access to the state family court proceedings. The court found that immigrant parents, including undocumented, detained and deported parents and their children have a Constitutional right in the parent child relationship that must be preserved absent specific findings of abuse. In Termination of Parental rights proceedings courts should not engage in a comparison of countries or cultures that can lead to separating U.S. born children from their immigrant parents who have not abused or neglected the children.
Immigration Status in Custody Cases Reference
DHS report as one of a series of audit, inspection, and special reports prepared as part of our oversight responsibilities to promote economy, efficiency, and effectiveness within the department. This report addresses the number of instances over the past 10 years in which the illegal alien parent of a United States citizen child was removed from the country. It is based on interviews with employees and officials of relevant agencies and institutions and a review of applicable documents.
INS Detention standard operating procedure regarding non-medical emergency escorted trips. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) provides detainees with approved staff escorted trips into the community for the purpose of visiting critically ill members of the detainee’s immediate family, or for attending their funerals.
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s, Office of Detention Policy and Planning, response to Michelle Brane’s, Director of Women’s Refugee Commission, letter regarding proposed changes to the Performance Based National Detention Standard on Escorted Trips for Non-Medical Emergencies.
Safety planning for immigrant survivors using DHS’s new victim protection policies.
This presentation covers battered immigrant women’s knowledge about protection orders, their opinions about the effects of protection orders on the intimate partner violence, the reasons leading them to file for protection orders, and the remedies they sought to have in protection orders. The presentation, also, looks at the structural processes that contribute to immigrant women obtaining civil protection orders. Finally, the presentation explores battered immigrant
Inviting grantees, subgrantees, and grant partners to join the Community of Practice.
To apply to the COP, submit this application by Thursday, March 10th. Applications can be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org or mailed to NIWAP at WCL, 4300 Nebraska Ave NW, C100, Washington, DC 20016.
You can fill out the form online at http://goo.gl/forms/It4xjjr4ky
Provides a description of NIWAP’s new initiative: a Community of Practice for family law attorneys who help immigrants.
In 2014, the Legal Service Corporation (LSC) issued regulations confirming that all immigrant crime victims are legally eligible for LSC funded legal services under anti-abuse regulations. This brochure discusses immigration status based eligibility as well as eligibility under anti-abuse laws. It provides advocates with a guide to immigrant crime victim access to LSC funded legal services, including an illustration on how VAWA, U-visa, and trafficking victims become eligible for LSC representation.
This chapter addresses the importance of protection orders as a tool to prevent domestic violence and discusses the authority and obligation of family court judges to issue protection orders to all survivors of intimate partner violence. Most importantly, this chapter explains the distinct separation between the powers of family court judges to issue protection orders and other family court remedies to survivors of domestic violence and the federal authority to grant or revoke immigration status.
Information for child welfare workers in regards to the Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJS).
This chapter discusses protection orders for immigrant victims of sexual assault.
Flow chart illustrating the importance of providing support for immigrant victims seeking help from the justice system and the many different types of justice system cases immigrant victims encounter as they turn to the justice system for help. The systems immigrant and LEP victims need support navigating include: immigration, domestic violence/ arrest incident, family court, benefits, and protection orders (civil court process).
This handout will provide best practices for judges, attorneys, and advocates on how to secure the attendance, in court proceedings, of immigrants who are being detained by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) so that immigrants can participate in family court proceedings involving their children and in criminal court proceedings.
This document outlines the purpose of and need for protection orders in cases of domestic violence and sexual assault, the barriers that victims face in obtaining protection orders, and the intersection of protection orders and immigration concerns. The document will be particularly useful for attorneys, advocates, and judges attempting to understand the impacts of protection orders on a victim’s immigration case.
Battered immigrants often require additional protection to address specific needs sensitive to the particular dynamics of power and coercive control in the abusive relationship where the abuser is the only pathway to lawful immigration status. This chart offers creative filings that a victim may consider based on the specific behavior she wants to deter. This document will be particularly helpful to advocates and attorneys representing battered immigrants, and to judges looking to familiarize themselves with possible remedies in such cases.
This document pertains to a family court bench card on immigrant crime victim access to public benefits and services. It explains the public benefits for undocumented domestic violence victims, and the additional public benefits for domestic violence victims who are lawfully present.
This helpful reference covers topics, such as the role of immigration status in custody cases, immigration relief for immigrant crime victims, and common immigration status misconceptions that arise in custody cases.
This chapter is designed to help lawyers develop case plans that position immigrant clients to best take advantage of the immigration and family law protections available to help battered immigrants. This chapter also highlights key issues that arise for lawyers representing battered immigrants in custody cases. Tools and resources are provided to help screen clients for immigration relief eligibility and to locate immigration lawyers in your state who have expertise working with immigrant survivors.
This guide describes the child welfare system in great detail. If you do not know what a word or term means, see the Glossary. You may need to read certain sections in this guide several times in order to understand and you may also need to ask someone else for help.
This bench card provides information for state court judges on issues unique to immigrants, such as: eligibility to work, eligibility to receive benefits and services, the impact of Individual Tax Identification Numbers (ITINs) and use of immigration affidavits of support in family and juvenile court proceedings and mandatory detention. The purpose of this bench card is to provide a quick reference and to help judges identify immigration issues that might affect the range of outcomes available in cases before them. The information contained in this bench card provides accurate information on work authorization, benefits access, assurances made to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) regarding support of family members, and information about immigrants who will be paying taxes and be able to submit tax returns to the court.
Bibliography of legal journal articles and legal publications related to the legal rights of immigrant victims of domestic violence, sexual assault and human trafficking through 2013.
A quick reference for judges on issues that arise in custody cases involving immigrant parents, children, and crime victims.
A bench card on protections orders and their effects on immigrants.
ICE Directive complementing and building upon policy memoranda and enforcement priorities to clarify ICE policy and procedure with regard to the placement, monitoring, accommodation, and removal of immigrant parents of children living in the United States, parents and legal guardians involved in family court proceedings involving children, and parents or legal guardians who have minor US citizen children
This chapter discusses the different barriers which immigrants may encounter with regard to accessing services. It discusses the impact of Welfare Reform on immigrant families. This chapter also includes a policy guidance issued by the Department of Health and Human Services, regarding handling questions on citizenship, immigration status, and social security numbers during the benefits application process, as well as facilitating access to public benefits for persons with limited English proficiency (LEP). Other topics included in this chapter are Medicaid and SCHIP, food stamps, and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF).
This chapter covers a courts’ obligation to immigrants and immigrant victims of domestic violence in regards to family court cases in divorce, child custody, and child support.
This chapter highlights several important types of assistance that nonprofit organizations serving immigrant victims of domestic violence may provide and discusses the requirements that service providers must meet when working with battered immigrant populations. Specifically, the chapter describes shelter services, victim compensation, legal assistance, and other types of federal benefits that organizations may provide to battered immigrants. Next, it discusses federal laws prohibiting service providers from discriminating on the basis of national origin and requiring them to provide services without regard to immigration status when necessary to protect the life and safety of a victim.
The chapter discusses jurisdictionally sound civil protection orders and the potential harms for victims if courts issues protection orders that are open to challenge by abusers who violate protection orders that are not jurisdictionally sound.
Civil protection orders are available in all fifty states, Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, and all U.S territories and are designed to protect battered individuals from their abusers. The civil protection order aims to offer the victim protection from future abuse and can be crafted to uniquely address and counter abuse, power, and control in each particular relationship. When civil protection orders are appropriately drafted and consistently enforced, they can provide effective protection for victims of domestic violence. Most importantly, civil protection orders provide a victim-initiated and controlled justice response to domestic violence that does not require criminal justice system involvement. Civil protection orders are initiated by the victim, thus a victim can choose to pursue this justice-system remedy without reliance on the criminal courts. This chapter discusses civil protection orders in depth.
This chapter covers the implications of what will happen if battered immigrants flee across state lines with children.
This chapter provides an overview of the child support system and demonstrates some of the problems faced by immigrant victims in accessing this system. This chapter also provides practical information on how to prepare for a child and spousal support case; what form of support orders are best in domestic violence cases; and tips on child support enforcement. The focus of this chapter is on the child- and spousal support issues that arise in cases of immigrant victims.
This chapter will provide an overview of the Hague Convention and its applications, as well as some practical recommendations to attorneys and advocates working with victims of domestic violence who are considering leaving the country with their children or who are fearful that their abuser may leave the country with their children.
Chapter in Empowering Survivors: Legal Rights of Immigrant Victims of Sexual Assault. This chapter discusses the importance of and steps that advocates and attorneys working with immigrant victims of domestic violence, child abuse, elder abuse, stalking and sexual assault can take to ensure that civil protection orders issues to family, stalking and sexual violence victims are jurisdictionally sound and enforceable. It provides practice pointers for avoiding agreement to and objecting to court orders that result in state court issuance of “no-findings” protection orders and lays out best practices for receiving consent protection orders that are jurisdictionally sound and enforceable because they are based on the uncontested affidavit of a victim in a civil case.
This is a comprehensive manual that provides information that will be useful to advocates, attorneys, justice, and social services professionals working with and assisting immigrant survivors of sexual assault. This manual will help advocates and professionals expand their knowledge and capacity to aid immigrant victims of sexual assault in accessing justice under federal and state civil, immigration, public benefits, social services, language access legal services and criminal laws in the United States. The goal is to help provide resources, assistance, and support to help immigrant victims of sexual violence and sexual harassment recover, heal, and rebuild their lives. The chapter and tools included in this manual may also be useful to advocates, attorneys, and social services professionals working with immigrant victims of domestic violence, stalking, and human trafficking.
This chapter is designed to help family lawyers prepare to counter attempts by abusers to raise immigration status in custody cases. Attorneys should be encouraged to use the information in this chapter to educate judges hearing custody cases about the fact that they should not consider immigration status in making custody decisions in the best interests of children. The contents of this chapter are written in a format that could be incorporated into a bench brief to a trial court in a custody matter or that would be included in materials for educating judges.
Breaking Barriers is a comprehensive tool that provides information that will be useful to advocates, attorneys, justice, and social services professionals working with and assisting immigrant survivors of domestic and family violence. This Manual provides a detailed overview explanation of immigrant survivors’ legal rights under immigration, family, public benefits, and criminal laws and their rights to access a broad range of victim services without regard to immigration status of the immigrant crime victim or their children. Breaking Barriers provides social science research findings, information about laws, policies and best practices, legislative history, tools and checklists that will help professionals working with immigrant survivors navigate intersecting legal and social services options that are legally available to assist all immigrant victims including those who are undocumented.
A powerpoint presentation from the June 26-27, 2013 training in Providence, Rhode Island from session 2A.
An immigration status table covering work authorization, public benefits, and the ability to sponsor children.
A state-by-state table of relevant factors when considering the best interests of the child chart.
Announcement of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) of extension of operating hours of the ICE Community and Detainee Helpline. The helpline provides direct channel for ICE detainees, their lawyers and advocates, nongovernmental organizations, and the general public to directly engage the ICE Office of the Public Advocate to answer questions and resolve concerns.
A template to file a motion to dismiss for inadequate service of process.
This article is designed to provide accurate information about current immigration laws and policies to family court judges and attorneys representing immigrant parents, to counter efforts by litigants in family court to raise immigration status of an opposing parent to gain advantage in a custody proceeding. A key goal of this article is to give courts and parties the information needed to keep the focus of the court’s decision making in custody cases on statutorily required factors—best interests of the child and primary caretaker determinations.
A survivor’s story is one of the most important pieces of evidence submitted with the VAWA, U, and T visa applications, which makes them different from other immigration applications. This is an opportunity for Department of Homeland Security (DHS) adjudicators to hear directly from the survivor, in his or her own voice. When reading the survivor’s story, the reader – ultimately, the DHS adjudicator – should be able to know and feel what the survivor felt after being subjected to abuse or crime victimization.
A template of a defendant’s motion to appear telephonically or via video conference.
Reference tool and information on handling of situations where immigration issues arise in custody cases.
A comprehensive manual covering topics, such as: attorney guide for victim parents at risk of detention, fact sheet on State v. Maria L., Nebraska Supreme Court ruling, explanation and power of attorney designation instructions, appointment of temporary guardian of child (one parent and two parents), motion to dismiss for inadequate service of process, motion to appear telephonically, motion and memo opposing TPR, TPR trial brief template, protecting assets and child custody in the face of deportation, and how children move through the child welfare system.
This article explores battered immigrant women’s use of protection orders. It presents an exploratory view of battered immigrant women’s knowledge of protection orders, the reasons leading them to file for protection orders, the remedies they sought in the protection orders, their views on what would improve the process of obtaining protection orders, and their experiences with the violations of protection.
This tool provides information on economic relief for immigrant victims and focuses on the role of financial control and isolation abusers use to maintain control over their victims. This tool address such issues as VAWA self-petition eligibility, child custody, child support, etc.
Department of Homeland Security resource guide clarifies and explains the role of certifying agencies in the U visa application process. This guide was published by DHS to provide accurate information on signing I-918B forms for federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, and other government agencies qualified to sign U visa certifications such as the EEOC, federal and state labor departments, adult and child protective services, and any other eligible agencies that have criminal, civil, or administrative investigative or proprietorial authority. The guide provides information about what a U visa is, how law enforcement and government agencies have a special role in certification, tips on filling out the form, and contains answers to frequently asked questions.
A comprehensive tool kit on subjects, such as: ensuring economic relief for immigrant victims through family law, proceedings: child support and spousal support, applicant financial statement, employer financial statement, employer affidavit, sample cover letter requesting employer’s statement, retroactive child support, and timing of immigrant victim access to work authorization.
Information and examples explaining how and in what proceedings courts may encounter immigrants who are eligible for Violence Against Women Act (VAWA and U Visa), Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), Special Immigrant Juvenile (SJIS) and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival (DACA) immigration protections.
Memorandum from the Legal Services Corporation (LSC) to all its grantees confirming that LSC grantees have the statutory and regulatory authority to represent eligible foreign nationals in Hague Convention cases (compelling the return of a child from one member nation to another) brought in United States courts. This authority extends to foreign nationals residing abroad.
A comprehensive manual covering topics such as: domestic violence and battered immigrant issues, cultural competency training, cross-cultural interviewing, recruiting and hiring multilingual and multicultural staff, shelter protocols, outreach and community collaboration, shelter access for battered immigrant women, VAWA immigration cases and victim advocacy confidentiality, creative use of protection orders, protections orders enforcement and criminal prosecution, access to public benefits, verification and reporting requirements under the U.S. Attorney General’s guidance and order, and model programs.
E.M.B.R. (Mother) appeals a judgment terminating her parental rights to her son, C.M.B.R. (Child), and granting M.M. and S.M.’s petition to adopt Child because the trial court found she willfully abandoned him. Court determines whether her consent was required under section 453.040(7), and the adoption of Child by S.M. and M.M.
Training powerpoint on public benefits from the December 1, 2010 Sioux Falls, South Dakata
This letter used together with the ICE Performance Based National Detention Standard on Escorted Trips for Non-Medical Emergencies (also included in this library) describes the system for securing attendance at court hearings for immigrants in ICE immigration detention. For parents in immigration detention this letter and the Non-Medical Emergency escort policy has been replaced by the 2013 Parental Interest Directive (also included in this library). This letter and the Non-Medical Emergency escort policy will have continued availability for use by courts and attorneys seeking to have detained immigrants appear in court for proceeding that do not involve children.